Severe Bruxism/ Neuromuscular Dentistry/ Dental Sleep Medicine/ TrigeminoCardiac Reflex and SPG Blocks are all connected and part of the same system

Dr. Shapira TMJ 0 Comments

What is the common underlying link of all of these.  The Trigeminal Nerve and the Autonomic nerves of thee Sphenopalatine Ganglion.
Self-Administered SPG Blocks can improve many autonomic issues in patients.
This is the connection of TMJ disorders to problems with the gut.
The connection of Aiirway collapse secondary to dental issues has been well established.
Bruxism is far more than a habit it is part of a medical group of disordrs.
. 2018 Aug; 4(8): 329–331.
Published online 2018 May 18. doi:  [10.1016/j.hrcr.2017.06.013]
PMCID: PMC6092563
PMID: 30112280

Grinding to a halt: Stimulation of the trigeminal cardiac reflex from severe bruxism

Key Teaching Points

  • • The autonomic nervous system has an intricate relationship with the heart; severe vagal stimulation can produce bradycardia and asystole.
  • • The trigeminal cardiac reflex is a powerful brain stem reflex that can be associated with a sudden onset of parasympathetic dysrhythmia, sympathetic hypotension, or gastric hypermotility.
  • • Bruxism, which is reported in 8% of the population, can stimulate the trigeminal cardiac reflex and lead to profound vagal effects on the heart.

Introduction

The trigeminal cardiac reflex (TCR) is a unique, powerful, and well-established neurocardiogenic reflex that is a result of stimulation along the path of the fifth cranial nerve (trigeminal nerve). It can produce adverse cardiorespiratory changes including hypotension, bradycardia, and asystole, as well as gastric consequences such as hypermotility. This reflex has been reported to occur in various surgical conditions, as well as in neurosurgical interventions.

Sleep bruxism, thought to be a more intense form of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity, has a prevalence of about 8% and has been explicitly linked to the TCR.We report a case of a young woman with severe bruxism who incited her TCR, which subsequently produced profound nocturnal pauses that ultimately required dual-chamber pacemaker implantation.

Case report

A 27-year-old woman presented with palpitations and syncope. Three years prior to presentation she developed nocturnal and early morning nausea and vomiting that would often wake her from sleep. She was noted to have a long-standing history of severe bruxism with physical signs on examination of significant attrition. This had persisted despite the use of a retainer and bite block. Evaluation with Holter monitoring revealed sinus bradycardia, intermittent second-degree type II atrioventricular (AV) block, and a pause of 8.6 seconds (Figure 1). Interestingly, the rhythm strips showed simultaneous effects on both the sinus and AV node, suggesting an autonomic etiology. Of note, these rhythm disturbances were principally nocturnal in nature. While she was wearing the Holter, the husband was awake and corroborated that she was having severe episodes of bruxism. Further cardiac evaluation was unrevealing, including a normal echocardiogram, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, sleep study, and thorough autonomic testing. With her constellation of symptoms—severe bruxism, AV nodal block with cardiac pauses (that were predominantly nocturnal), and gastrointestinal symptoms—we diagnosed her with hypervagotonia from stimulation of the powerful TCR from severe bruxism (Figure 2). Out of concern for risk of cardiac death from these pauses without a stable ventricular escape, we elected to place a dual-chamber pacemaker for bradycardic prevention.

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Holter monitoring revealed sinus bradycardia, intermittent second-degree type II atrioventricular block, and a pause of 8.6 seconds

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Illustration of the trigeminal cardiac reflex. X = motor nucleus of the vagus nerve; ∗ = Gasserian ganglion; V = trigeminal nerve.

Discussion

This case highlights the intricate and noteworthy relationship between the autonomic nervous system and the heart. Our patient developed high-grade AV block and syncope owing to significant and profound hypervagotonia. Based upon her evaluation and corroboration of these events by her husband, we deemed that her intense vagal stimulation was a consequence of her severe bruxism, which was eliciting the TCR.

The TCR (Figure 2) is a powerful brain stem reflex that can be associated with a sudden onset of parasympathetic dysrhythmia, sympathetic hypotension, or gastric hypermotility. The proposed mechanism of this reflex is stimulation of the sensory nerve endings of the trigeminal nerve (Figure 2, cranial nerve V), which sends signals via the Gasserian ganglion (Figure 2, indicated by asterisk) to the sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve (Figure 2 inset). The afferent pathway then continues along the short internuncial nerve fibers in the reticular formation to connect with the efferent pathway, the motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (Figure 2, cranial nerve X). The last part of the reflex is formed by cardioinhibitory efferent fibers, which connect the motor nucleus of the vagus nerve to the myocardium.

Bruxism is a common occurrence in the population (8%) and has been associated with alterations in the autonomic nervous system and stimulation of the TCR. The mechanism behind the TCR stimulation is felt to be 2-fold. Firstly, masticatory movements (rhythmic masticatory muscle activity) and secondly, teeth contact can stimulate mechanoreceptors in the periodontal tissue. The link between bruxism, TCR, and alteration in the autonomic nervous system is important to highlight as it is well established that the autonomic nervous system plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of various cardiac arrhythmias, particularly atrial fibrillation. Although not specifically related to our patient, the fact that bruxism is so common raises the potential role it could be contributing to autonomic drivers of atrial fibrillation, and this is something that requires further research examination.

Conclusion

When evaluating patients who present with symptoms of significant hypervagotonia, it is important to consider sleep-related causes, in particular sleep bruxism and its role in the TCR.

Footnotes

Dr DeSimone is supported by an NIH T32 training grant (HL 007111).

References

1. Reding G.R., Rubright W.C., Zimmerman S.O. Incidence of bruxism. J Dent Res. 1966;45:1198–1204. [PubMed]
2. Schames S.E., Schames J., Schames M., Chagall-Gungur S.S. Sleep bruxism, an autonomic self-regulating response by triggering the trigeminal cardiac reflex. J Calif Dent Assoc. 2012;40:670–671. 674–676. [PubMed]
3. Arasho B., Sandu N., Spiriev T., Prabhakar H., Schaller B. Management of the trigeminocardiac reflex: facts and own experience. Neurol India. 2009;57:375–380. [PubMed]
4. Gastaldo E., Quatrale R., Graziani A., Eleopra R., Tugnoli V., Tola M.R., Granieri E. The excitability of the trigeminal motor system in sleep bruxism: a transcranial magnetic stimulation and brainstem reflex study. J Orofac Pain. 2006;20:145–155. [PubMed]
5. Chowdhury T., Bindu B., Singh G.P., Schaller B. Sleep disorders: is the trigemino-cardiac reflex a missing link? Front Neurol. 2017;8:63. [PubMed]
6. Sjoholm T.T., Piha S.J., Lehtinen I. Cardiovascular autonomic control is disturbed in nocturnal teethgrinders. Clin Physiol. 1995;15:349–354. [PubMed]
7. Okada Y., Kamijo Y., Okazaki K., Masuki S., Goto M., Nose H. Pressor responses to isometric biting are evoked by somatosensory receptors in periodontal tissue in humans. J Appl Physiol. 2009;107:531–539. [PubMed]

Bedwetting Prevention in Chicago: Bedwetting is often an symptom of a dangerous condition that can be easily addressed in children as young as two.

Dr. Shapira Breathing problems can cause TMJ, Breathing Sleeping Problems, Sleep, Unsorted 0 Comments

Bedwetting can be devastating to the social core of families. While it is an inconvenience in younger children it can drastically disrupt family life as children age. Bedwetting can also be a warning sign for Sleep Disordered Breathing in children.

Sleep disordered breathing has been implicated as a primary culprit in the development of ADD, ADHD and other behavioral disorders.

Sleep disordered breathing may be mild and only consist of snoring or it may be severe. The Americn Academy of pediatrics is so concerned with the permanent life changing damage sleep disordered breathing can cause that they now consider even a single apneic event nightly dangerous.

Snoring should never be ignored in even the youngest children.

The Perfect Start system is designed to correct the environmentally caused epigenetic problems leading to a poor airway in young children.  Orthodontics is often used to correct these problems in older children but it is generally agreed that between ages 4-7 is when critical changes in the maturing brain can lead to disorders like ADD, ADHD and Behavioral Disorders and Bedwetting, tooth grinding or clenching   and snoring or restless sleep is a critical warning sign.  These same airway problems create a need for orthodontics in children who have underdeveloped jaws.  In adults we can now use the DNA Appliance to Orthopedically and Pneumopedically grow larger airways and big beautiful smiles.

I have been treating patients with Sleep Apnea for over 35 years but until I became aware of the Perfect Start System we have been primarily treating adults and older children and did not have an easy method treating the youngest children prior to development of behavioral and learning problems.

The first step in the Perfect Start System  is a habit corrector that addresses unconscious habits that develop from constricted airways, insufficient time being breast fed and inadequate muscle development from soft western diet.  Crowded teeth and the need for orthodontics is a phenomenom of the last 400 years.  Prior to that time malocclusions were almost non-existent.  The Perfect Start System is designed to reverse the negative  growth and airway developmental changes modern life style has produced in children.

Do Not Delay, these changes will not correct themselves.

The Perfect Start website has testimonials from doctors and patients on how correcting sleep disordered breathing in young children can improve lives. Read more here.